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Cours en programmation Linux

Cours en programmation Linux en Français, Anglais et Néerlandais

Formation Debian

  • Présentation et utilisation du mode console
  • Concepts de base
    • Utilisateurs (droits d'accès et sécurité)
    • Processus, fichiers, structure générale du système
    • Gestionnaire des tâches Cron
  • Outils de base de configuration d'un serveur
  • Gestion des processus
  • Comment installer et configurer des services
    • Installation et configuration d'Apache/MySQL/PHP
    • Installation et configuration d'un serveur FTP (vsftpd)
  • Problèmes de performances : détection et solutions
    • Analyse des logs
    • Outils de statistiques (bande passante, ...)

 

Linux Fundamentals

1. Introduction to Unix and Linux
   
Unix History

  • AT&T Bell Labs
  • The Unix Wars
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • GNU's not Unix
  • Linux

  
 Licensing

  • Proprietary
  • BSD
  • GNU General Public License (GPL)
  • Others...

  
 Current Distributions

  • What is a distribution ?
  • Linux Distributions
  • BSD Distributions
  • Major Vendors of Unix
  • Solaris

    Certification

  • LPI: Linux Professional Institute
  • Red Hat Certified Engineer
  • MySQL
  • Novell CLP/CLE
  • Sun Solaris
  • Other certifications

    Discovering the classroom

2. Getting help in Linux

    man pages

  • man $command
  • man $configfile
  • man $daemon
  • man -k (apropos)
  • whatis
  • whereis
  • man sections
  • man $section $file
  • man man
  • mandb

    online help

  • Google
  • Wikipedia
  • The Linux Documentation Project
  • Red Hat
  • Ubuntu
  • www.linux-training.be

3. First steps in Linux

    working with directories

  • pwd
  • cd
  • absolute and relative paths
  • path completion
  • ls
  • mkdir
  • rmdir

    practice : working with directories
    solution : working with directories
    working with files

  • file
  • touch
  • rm
  • cp
  • mv
  • rename

    practice : working with files
    solution : working with files
    file contents

  • head
  • tail
  • cat
  • tac
  • more and less
  • strings

    practice : file contents
    solution : file contents

4. The Linux file system tree

    all files are case sensitive
    everything is a file
    / (the root directory)
    man hier
    filesystem hierarchy standard
    common directories

  • /bin binaries
  • /boot static files to boot the system
  • /dev device files
  • /etc configuration files
  • /home sweet home
  • /initrd
  • /lib shared libraries
  • /media for removable media
  • /mnt standard mount point
  • /opt optional software
  • /proc conversation with the kernel
  • /root the superuser's home
  • /sbin system binaries
  • /srv served by your system
  • /sys Linux 2.6 hot plugging
  • /tmp for temporary files
  • /usr Unix system resources
  • /var variable data

    practice : file system tree
    solution : file system tree

5. Introduction to the shell in Linux

    about shells

  • several shells
  • external or built-in commands
  • type
  • running external commands
  • which
  • alias
  • echo
  • shell expansion
  • displaying shell expansion

    practice: about shells
    solution: about shells
    control operators

  • ; semicolon
  • & ampersand
  • && double ampersand
  • || double vertical bar
  • Combining && and ||
  • # pound sign
  • \ escaping special characters
  • end of line backslash

    practice: control operators
    solution: control operators
    shell variables

  • $ dollar sign
  • case sensitive
  • $PS1
  • $PATH
  • $? dollar question mark
  • unbound variables
  • creating and setting variables
  • set
  • unset
  • env
  • exporting variables
  • delineate variables
  • quotes and variables

    practice: shell variables
    solution: shell variables
    shell arguments

  • white space removal
  • single quotes
  • double quotes
  • echo and quotes
  • shell embedding
  • back ticks
  • back ticks or single quotes

    practice: shell arguments
    solution: shell arguments
    file globbing

  • asterisk
  • ? question mark
  • [] square brackets
  • a-z and 0-9 ranges
  • $LANG and square brackets

    bash shell options
    shell history

  • history variables
  • repeating commands in bash
  • repeating commands in ksh

    practice : shell globbing, options and history
    solution: shell globbing, options and history
    shell i/o redirection

  • stdin, stdout, and stderr
    • output redirection
  • noclobber
  • >> append
  • 2> error redirection
  • 2>&1
  • < input redirection
  • << here document
  • confusing i/o redirection
  • quick file clear
  • swapping stdout and stderr

    practice : i/o redirection
    solution : i/o redirection

6. Pipes and filters in Linux

    pipes

  • about pipes
  • | vertical bar
  • multiple pipes

    filters

  • about filters
  • cat does nothing
  • tee
  • grep
  • cut
  • tr
  • wc
  • sort
  • uniq
  • comm
  • od
  • sed

    some pipeline examples

  • who | wc
  • who | cut | sort
  • grep | cut

    practice : pipes and filters
    solution : pipes and filters

7. Basic Unix tools

    common tools

  • find
  • locate
  • date
  • cal
  • sleep
  • time

    compression tools

  • gzip - gunzip
  • zcat - zmore
  • bzip2 - bunzip2
  • bzcat - bzmore

    practice : basic Unix tools
    solution : basic Unix tools

8. Introduction to vi in Linux

    about vi(m)
    introduction to using vi(m)

  • command mode and insert mode
  • start typing (a A i I o O)
  • replace and delete a character (r x X)
  • undo and repeat (u .)
  • cut, copy and paste a line (dd yy p P)
  • cut, copy and paste lines (3dd 2yy)
  • start and end of a line (0 or ^ and $)
  • join two lines (J) and more
  • words (w b)
  • save (or not) and exit (:w :q :q! )
  • Searching (/ ?)
  • Replace all ( :1,$ s/foo/bar/g )
  • Reading files (:r :r !cmd)
  • text buffers
  • multiple files
  • abbreviations
  • key mappings
  • setting options

    practice : vi(m)
    solution : vi(m)

9. Understanding scripts in Linux

    introduction to scripting

  • scripts are everywhere
  • hello world
  • she-bang
  • comment
  • variables
  • sourcing a script
  • prevent setuid root spoofing

    practice : introduction to scripting
    solution : introduction to scripting
    scripting tests and loops

  • test [ ]
  • if if, then then, or else
  • for loop
  • while loop
  • until loop

    practice : scripting tests and loops
    solution : scripting tests and loops
    parameters and options

  • script parameters
  • shift through parameters
  • runtime input
  • sourcing a config file
  • get script options with getopts
  • get shell options with shopt

    practice : parameters and options
    solution : parameters and options
    more scripting

  • eval
  • (( ))
  • let
  • case
  • shell functions

    practice : more scripting
    solution : more scripting

10. Introduction to users in Linux

    identify yourself

  • whoami
  • who
  • who am i
  • w
  • id

    users

  • user management
  • /etc/passwd
  • root
  • useradd
  • /etc/default/useradd
  • userdel
  • usermod

    passwords

  • passwd
  • /etc/shadow
  • password encryption
  • password defaults
  • disabling a password
  • editing local files

    home directories

  • creating home directories
  • /etc/skel/
  • deleting home directories

    user shell

  • login shell
  • chsh

    switch users with su

  • su to another user
  • su to root
  • su as root
  • su - $username
  • su -

    run a program as another user

  • about sudo
  • setuid on sudo
  • visudo
  • sudo su

    practice: users
    solution: users
    shell environment

  • /etc/profile
  • ~/.bash_profile
  • ~/.bash_login
  • ~/.profile
  • ~/.bashrc
  • ~/.bash_logout
  • Debian overview
  • RHEL5 overview

11. Introduction to groups in Linux

    about groups
    groupadd
    /etc/group
    usermod
    groupmod
    groupdel
    groups
    gpasswd
    vigr
    practice: groups
    solution: groups

12. Standard file permissions in Linux

    file ownership

  • user owner and group owner
  • chgrp
  • chown

 

    list of special files
    permissions

  • rwx
  • three sets of rwx
  • permission examples
  • setting permissions (chmod)
  • setting octal permissions
  • umask

    practice: standard file permissions
    solution: standard file permissions
    sticky and setgid bits

  • sticky bit on directory
  • setgid bit on directory
  • setgid and setuid on regular files

    practice: sticky, setuid and setgid bits
    solution: sticky, setuid and setgid bits
    access control lists

  • acl in /etc/fstab
  • getfacl
  • setfacl
  • remove an acl entry
  • remove the complete acl
  • the acl mask
  • eiciel

13. File links In Linux

    inodes

  • inode contents
  • inode table
  • inode number
  • inode and file contents

    about directories

  • a directory is a table
  • . and ..

    hard links

  • creating hard links
  • finding hard links

    symbolic links
    removing links
    practice : links
    solution : links

14. Introduction to Processes in Linux

    terminology

  • process
  • PID
  • PPID
  • init
  • kill
  • daemon
  • zombie

    basic process management

  • $$ and $PPID
  • pidof
  • parent and child
  • fork and exec
  • exec
  • ps
  • pgrep
  • top

    signalling processes

  • kill
  • list signals
  • kill -1 (SIGHUP)
  • kill -15 (SIGTERM)
  • kill -9 (SIGKILL)
  • killall
  • pkill
  • top
  • SIGSTOP and SIGCONT

 

Linux System Administration

1. Process management
1.1. terminology
1.2. basic process management
1.3. signalling processes
1.4. practice : basic process management
1.5. solution : basic process management
1.6. priority and nice values
1.7. practice : process priorities
1.8. solution : process priorities
1.9. background processes
1.10. practice : background processes
1.11. solution : background processes
2. Disk management
2.1. hard disk devices
2.2. practice: hard disk devices
2.3. solution: hard disk devices
2.4. partitions
2.5. practice: partitions
2.6. solution: partitions
2.7. file systems
2.8. practice: file systems
2.9. solution: file systems
2.10. mounting
2.11. practice: mounting file systems
2.12. solution: mounting file systems
2.13. uuid and filesystems
2.14. practice: uuid and filesystems
2.15. solution: uuid and filesystems
2.16. RAID
2.17. practice: RAID
3. Logical volume management
3.1. introduction to lvm
3.2. lvm terminology
3.3. example: using lvm
3.4. example: extend a logical volume
3.5. example: resize a physical Volume
3.6. example: mirror a logical volume
3.7. example: snapshot a logical volume
3.8. verifying existing physical volumes
3.9. verifying existing volume groups
3.10. verifying existing logical volumes
3.11. manage physical volumes
3.12. manage volume groups
3.13. manage logical volumes
3.14. practice : lvm
4. Booting the system
4.1. boot terminology
4.2. grub
4.3. lilo
4.4. practice : bootloader
4.5. solution : bootloader
5. init
5.1. about sysv init
5.2. system init(ialization)
5.3. daemon or demon ?
5.4. starting and stopping daemons
5.5. chkconfig
5.6. update-rc.d
5.7. bum
5.8. runlevels
5.9. practice: init
5.10. solution : init
6. Linux Kernel
6.1. about the Linux kernel
6.2. Linux kernel source
6.3. kernel boot files
6.4. Linux kernel modules
6.5. compiling a kernel
6.6. compiling one module
7. Introduction to network sniffing
7.1. about sniffing
7.2. wireshark
7.3. tcpdump
7.4. practice: network sniffing
7.5. solution: network sniffing
8. Introduction to networking
8.1. introduction to computer networks
8.2. about tcp/ip
8.3. practice : about tcp/ip
8.4. solution : about tcp/ip
8.5. using tcp/ip
8.6. practice : using tcp/ip
8.7. solution : using tcp/ip
8.8. multiple ip-addresses
8.9. practice : multiple ip-addresses
8.10. solution : multiple ip-addresses
8.11. multihomed hosts
8.12. practice : multihomed hosts
8.13. solution : multihomed hosts
8.14. introduction to iptables
8.15. practice : iptables
8.16. solution : iptables
8.17. xinetd and inetd
8.18. practice : inetd and xinetd
8.19. openssh
8.20. practice: ssh
8.21. network file system
8.22. practice : network file system
9. Scheduling
9.1. about scheduling
9.2. one time jobs with at
9.3. cron
9.4. practice : scheduling
9.5. solution : scheduling
10. Logging
10.1. about logging
10.2. login logging
10.3. syslogd daemon
10.4. logger
10.5. watching logs
10.6. rotating logs
10.7. practice : logging
10.8. solution : logging
11. Library Management
11.1. introduction
11.2. /lib and /usr/lib
11.3. ldd
11.4. ltrace
11.5. dpkg -S and debsums
11.6. rpm -qf and rpm -V
12. Memory management
12.1. about memory
12.2. /proc/meminfo
12.3. swap space
12.4. practice : memory
13. Installing Linux
13.1. about
13.2. installation by cdrom
13.3. installation with rarp and tftp
13.4. about Red Hat kickstart
13.5. using kickstart
14. Package management
14.1. terminology
14.2. Red Hat package manager
14.3. yum
14.4. rpm2cpio
14.5. Debian package management
14.6. alien
14.7. Downloading software
14.8. Compiling software
14.9. Practice: Installing software
14.10. Solution: Installing software
15. Backup
15.1. About tape devices
15.2. Compression
15.3. tar
15.4. Backup Types
15.5. dump and restore
15.6. cpio
15.7. dd
15.8. split
15.9. Practice backup
16. Performance monitoring
16.1. About Monitoring
16.2. top
16.3. free
16.4. watch
16.5. vmstat
16.6. iostat
16.7. mpstat
16.8. sadc and sar
16.9. ntop
16.10. iftop

 

 

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